JEROEN VOGELAAR: Aviation Photographs

North American

North American T-28 Trojan

North American T-28B Trojan N1328B/55-138354/TL-354

The North American Aviation T-28 Trojan was a piston-engined military trainer aircraft used by the United States Air Force and United States Navy beginning in the 1950s. T-28S Fennec are ex-USAF T-28As converted in 1959 for use by the French Armee de l’Air.

  • Role: Trainer aircraft
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: 24 September 1949
  • Introduction: 1950
  • Produced: 1950–57
  • Status: Retired from military service 1994 Philippine Air Force
  • Number built: 1,948

Operators

  • Argentine Air Force – 34 T-28A
  • Argentine Naval Aviation 65 ex-French Air Force T-28S Fennec aircraft
  • Bolivian Air Force at least six T-28D
  • Brazilian Navy – 18 T-28C
  • Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo – 14 T-28C, 3 T-28B, 10 T-28D
  • Cuban Air Force – 10
  • Dominican Air Force
  • Ecuadorian Air Force – nine T-28A
  • Ethiopian Air Force – 12 T-28A and 12 T-28D
  • French Air Force – 148 T-28A airframes modified in France (1959) to make the T-28S Fennec COIN model
  • Haitian Air Force – 12 ex-French Air Force
  • Honduran Air Force – eight former Moroccan Air Force Fennecs
  • Japanese Air Self-Defense Force
  • Khmer National Air Force operated 47 T-28
  • Royal Lao Air Force – 55 T-28D
  • Mexican Air Force – 32 T-28A
  • Royal Moroccan Air Force – 25 Fennec
  • Nicaraguan Air Force – six T-28D
  • Philippine Air Force – 12 T-28A
  • Republic of Korea Air Force
  • Royal Saudi Air Force
  • Vietnam Air Force
  • Tunisian Air Force – Fennec
  • ROC Air Force (Taiwan)
  • Royal Thai Air Force – 88 T-28Ds delivered
  • United States Army
  • United States Air Force – 1194 T-28A, of which 360 converted to “D”
  • United States Navy – 489 T-28B and 299 T-28C
  • Uruguayan Naval Aviation – Fennec
  • Vietnam People’s Air Force
  • Zaire

North American T-28A Fennec F-AZKG/82

Specifications (T-28D)

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two
  • Length: 33 ft 0 in (10.06 m)
  • Wingspan: 40 ft 1 in (12.22 m)
  • Height: 12 ft 8 in (3.86 m)
  • Wing area: 268 ft² (24.9 m²)
  • Empty weight: 6,424 lb (2,914 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 8,500 lb (10,500 lb with combat stores) (3,856 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-1820-86 Cyclone radial engine, 1,425 hp (1,063 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 343 mph (552 km/h)
  • Service ceiling: 39,000 ft (10,820 m)
  • Rate of climb: 4,000 fpm (20.3 m/s)

Armament

  • two or six × wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying bombs, napalm, rockets. machine gun pods containing .30 in (7.62 mm) (training), .50 in (D-model) or twin pods with .50 in (12.7 mm) and 20 mm (.79 in) cannon (Fennec)

North American F-86 Sabre

North American F-86F Sabre 52-5385/FU-385 USAF

The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, was a transonic jet fighter aircraft.

  • Role: Fighter aircraft
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: 1 October 1947
  • Introduction: 1949 USAF
  • Retired: 1994, Bolivia
  • Number built: 9,860
  • Variants: CAC Sabre, Canadair Sabre, North American F-86D Sabre and North American FJ-2/-3 Fury

Military operators

  • Argentine Air Force
  • Belgian Air Force
  • Bolivian Air Force
  • Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)
  • Colombian Air Force
  • Royal Danish Air Force
  • Ethiopian Air Force
  • German Air Force
  • Honduran Air Force
  • Imperial Iranian Air Force
  • Iraqi Air Force
  • Japanese Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF)
  • Royal Netherlands Air Force
  • Royal Norwegian Air Force
  • Pakistani Air Force
  • Peruvian Air Force
  • Philippine Air Force
  • Portuguese Air Force
  • Republic of China Air Force
  • Royal Saudi Air Force
  • South African Air Force
  • Republic of Korea Air Force
  • Spanish Air Force
  • Royal Thai Air Force
  • Tunisian Air Force
  • Turkish Air Force
  • United Nations Operation in the Congo
  • United States Air Force
  • Venezuelan Air Force
  • Yugoslav Air Force

According to the FAA there are 50 privately owned and registered F-86s in the US, including Canadair CL-13 Sabres.

Specifications (F-86F)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 37 ft 1 in (11.4 m)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 0 in (11.3 m)
  • Height: 14 ft 1 in (4.5 m)
  • Wing area: 313.4 sq ft (29.11 m²)
  • Empty weight: 11,125 lb (5,046 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 15,198 lb (6,894 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 18,152 lb (8,234 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × General Electric J47-GE-27 turbojet, 5,910 lbf (maximum thrust at 7,950 lbf for five min)with water injection (26.3 kN)
  • Fuel provisions Internal fuel load: 437 US gallons (1,650 L)), Drop tanks: 2×200 US gallons (760 L) JP-4 fuel

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 687 mph (1,106 km/h) at sea level at 14,212 lb (6,447 kg) combat weight
    also reported 678 mph (1,091 km/h) and 599 at 35,000 feet (11,000 m) at 15,352 pounds (6,960 kg). (597 knots (1,106 km/h) at 6446 m, 1,091 and 964 km/h at 6,960 m.)
  • Stall speed: 124 mph (power off) (108 knots (200 km/h))
  • Range: 1,525 mi, (2,454 km)
  • Service ceiling: 49,600 ft at combat weight (15,100 m)
  • Rate of climb: 9,000 ft/min at sea level (45.72 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 49.4 lb/ft² (236.7 kg/m²)
  • lift-to-drag: 15.1
  • Thrust/weight: 0.38

Armament

  • Guns: 6 X 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M3 Browning machine guns (1,800 rounds in total)
  • Rockets: variety of rocket launchers; e.g: 2 Matra rocket pods with 18 SNEB 68 mm rockets per pod
  • Bombs: 5,300 lb (2,400 kg) of payload on four external hardpoints, bombs were usually mounted on outer two pylons as the inner pairs were plumbed for 2 200 US gallons (760 L) drop tanks which gave the Sabre a more useful range. A wide variety of bombs could be carried (max standard loadout being 2 1,000 lb bombs plus two drop tanks), napalm canisters and could have included a tactical nuclear weapon.

North American T-6 Texan

North American T-6G Texan 115-237 OH

The North American Aviation T-6 Texan was a single-engined advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth (Harvard) during World War II and into the 1970s.

  • Role: Trainer aircraft
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: April 1, 1935
  • Introduction: 1935
  • Status: Retired from military service 1985 (Brazilian Air Force)
  • Number built: 15,495

North American AT-6B Texan as Zero F-AZZM/170

Specifications (T-6G)

General characteristics

  • Crew: two (student and instructor)
  • Length: 29 ft (8.84 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft (12.81 m)
  • Height: 11 ft 8 in (3.57 m)
  • Wing area: 253.7 ft² (23.6 m²)
  • Empty weight: 4,158 lb (1,886 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 5,617 lb (2,548 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp radial engine, 600 hp (450 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 208 mph at 5,000 ft (335 km/h at 1,500 m)
  • Cruise speed: 145 mph (233 km/h)
  • Range: 730 miles (1,175 km)
  • Service ceiling: 24,200 ft (7,400 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1200ft/min (6.1 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 22.2 lb/ft² (108 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (kW/kg)

Armament

  • Provision for up to 3× 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun

North American P-51 Mustang

North American P-51D Mustang H-307 Royal Netherlands Air Force

The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II, the Korean War and other conflicts. The Mustang was conceived, designed and built by North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a specification issued directly to NAA by the British Purchasing Commission.

  • Role: Fighter
  • National origin: United States
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: October 26, 1940
  • Introduction: 1942
  • Status: Retired from military service 1984 (Dominican Air Force)
  • Number built: 15,000+

Specifications (P-51D Mustang)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 32 ft 3 in (9.83 m)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 0 in (11.28 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 4½ in (4.08 m:tail wheel on ground, vertical propeller blade.)
  • Wing area: 235 sq ft (21.83 m²)
  • Airfoil: NAA/NACA 45-100 / NAA/NACA 45-100
  • Empty weight: 7,635 lb (3,465 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 9,200 lb (4,175 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 12,100 lb (5,490 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Packard V-1650-7 liquid-cooled supercharged V-12, 1,490 hp (1,111 kW) at 3,000 rpm; 1,720 hp (1,282 kW) at WEP
  • Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0163
  • Drag area: 3.80 sqft (0.35 m²)
  • Aspect ratio: 5.83

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 437 mph (380 kn, 703 km/h) at 25,000 ft (7,600 m)
  • Cruise speed: 362 mph (315 kn, 580 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 100 mph (87 kn, 160 km/h)
  • Range: 1,650 mi (1,434 nmi, 2,755 km) with external tanks
  • Service ceiling: 41,900 ft (12,800 m)
  • Rate of climb: 3,200 ft/min (16.3 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 39 lb/sqft (192 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.18 hp/lb (300 W/kg)
  • Lift-to-drag ratio: 14.6
  • Recommended Mach limit 0.8

Armament

  • 6× 0.50 caliber (12.7mm) M2 Browning machine guns with 1,880 total rounds (400 rounds for each on the inner pair, and 270 rounds for each of the outer two pair)
  • 2× hardpoints for up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs
  • 6 or 10× T64 5.0 in (127 mm) H.V.A.R rockets (P-51D-25, P-51K-10 on)

North American NA-68

North American NA-68 F-AZHD/79413/7

North American P-64 (also named NA-68) was the designation assigned by the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) to the North American Aviation NA-68 fighter, an upgraded variant of the NA-50 developed during the late 1930s.

  • Role: Single-seat Fighter
  • National origin: United States of America
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: May 1939 (NA-50), 1 September 1940 (NA-68)
  • Number built: 13

Specifications (NA-68/P-64)

General characteristics

  • Crew: One
  • Length: 27 ft (8.23 m)
  • Wingspan: 37 ft 3 in (11.35 m)
  • Height: 19 ft 8 in (5.99 m)
  • Wing area: 227 ft² (21.1 m²)
  • Empty weight: 4,660 lb (2,114 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 5,990 lb (2,717 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 6,800 lb (3,080 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-1820-77 radial engine, 870 hp (649 kW)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 270 mph (435 km/h) at 8,700 ft (2,650 m)
  • Range: 965 mi (1,550 km)
  • Service ceiling: 27,500 ft (8,400 m)
  • Wing loading: 26 lb/ft² (129 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.13 hp/lb (0.21 kW/kg)

Armament

  • 2 × .30 in (7.62 mm) machine guns
  • 2 × 20 mm cannons
  • Up to 400 lb (180 kg) of bombs

North American B-25 Mitchell

North American B-25N Mitchell PH-XXV/232511/N5-149 Royal Netherl

The North American B-25 Mitchell was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. It was used by many Allied air forces, in every theater of World War II, as well as many other air forces after the war ended, and saw service across four decades.

  • Role: Medium bomber
  • National origin: United States of America
  • Manufacturer: North American Aviation
  • First flight: 19 August 1940
  • Introduction: 1941
  • Status: Retired
  • Produced:
  • Number built: 9,816

Military operators B-25 Mitchell

  • Royal Australian Air Force 50
  • Biafran Air Force 2
  • Fuerza Aérea Boliviana 13
  • Brazilian Air Force 75
  • Royal Canadian Air Force 164
  • Republic of China Air Force 180
  • People’s Liberation Army Air Force
  • Fuerza Aérea de Chile 12
  • Fuerza Aérea Colombiana 3
  • Fuerza Aérea del Ejército de Cuba 6
  • Dominican Air Force 5
  • Armée de l’Air 11
  • Free French Air Force 18
  • Indonesian Air Force
  • Mexican Air Force 3
  • Royal Netherlands Air Force 62
  • Dutch Naval Aviation Service 107
  • Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force 149
  • Cuerpo Aeronáutico del Perú 8
  • Ejército del Aire 1
  • Soviet Air Force (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily or VVS) 886
  • Royal Air Force 900+
  • United States Army Air Forces
  • United States Marine Corps
  • United States Navy 706
  • Fuerza Aérea Uruguaya 15
  • Fuerza Aérea Venezolana 24

Specifications (B-25H)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 6 (one pilot, one co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, turret gunner/engineer, radio operator/waist gunner, tail gunner)
  • Length: 52 ft 11 in (16.13 m)
  • Wingspan: 67 ft 7 in (20.60 m)
  • Height: 16 ft 4 in (4.98 m)
  • Wing area: 610 sq ft (56.7 m²)
  • Empty weight: 19,480 lb (8,855 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 35,000 lb (15,910 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Wright R-2600-92 Twin Cyclone 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, 1,700 hp (1,267 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 272 mph (237 kn, 438 km/h) at 13,000 ft (3,960 m)
  • Cruise speed: 230 mph (200 knots, 370 km/h)
  • Range: 1,350 mi (1,174 nmi, 2,174 km)
  • Service ceiling: 24,200 ft (7,378 m)

Armament

  • Guns: 12–18 × .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns and 75 mm (2.95 in) T13E1 cannon
  • Hardpoints: 2,000 lb (900 kg) ventral shackles to hold one external Mark 13 torpedo
  • Rockets: racks for eight 5 in (127 mm) high velocity aircraft rockets (HVAR)
  • Bombs: 3,000 lb (1,360 kg) bombs